Reliance on low tissue penetrating UV or visible light limits clinical applicability of phototherapy, necessitating use of deep tissue penetrating near-infrared (NIR) to visible light transducers like upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). While typical UCNPs produce multiple simultaneous emissions for unidirectional control of biological processes, programmable control requires orthogonal non-overlapping light emissions. These can be obtained through doping nanocrystals with multiple activator ions. However, this requires tedious synthesis and produces complicated multi-shell nanoparticles with a lack of control over emission profiles due to activator crosstalk. Herein, we explore cross-relaxation (CR), a non-radiative recombination pathway typically perceived as deleterious, to manipulate energy migration within the same lanthanide activator ion (Er3+) towards orthogonal red and green emissions, simply by adjusting excitation wavelength from 980 to 808 nm. These UCNPs allow programmable activation of two synergistic light-gated ion channels VChR1 and Jaws in the same cell to manipulate membrane polarization, demonstrated here for cardiac pacing.
DNA damage and transcription stress cause ATP-mediated redesign of metabolism and potentiation of anti-oxidant buffering
October 27, 2019